A number of challenges in the field of water sector have been identified by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation. A few can be listed as bridging gap of Irrigation Potential Created and Irrigation Potential Utilised , over exploitation of ground water, flood management, drought resilience, conflict resolution, dam safety, reliable data availability, deteriorating water quality etc. Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation has taken a number of steps to mitigate these challenges.
PRADHAN MANTRI KRISHI SINCHAYEE YOJANA (PMKSY) is one of the flagship scheme of this Ministry which has been launched in Mission mode. The scheme has been divided into 99 prioritized projects with different timelines. Total expected expenditure in the complete project shall be Rs 77595 Cr with Central share of Rs 31342 Cr. Total irrigation potential utilization after completion of entire project is expected to be 76.03 Lakh Ha. Many projects which were at standstill such as Gosikhurd (2.5 Lakh Ha.) Maharashtra, were streamlined and put on track for timely completion. The details of the project under PMKSY are as under:
|Category||No. of Projects||Fund required for completion
(Rs. in crore)
(Rs. in crore)
|Irrigation Potential Utilisation
(Completion by 3/2017)
(Completion by 3/2018)
|Priority-III projects (Completion by 12/2019)||45||32510||18757||51268||20538||48.55|
PMKSY dashboard has also been launched for online information on the status of the project which can be readily accessed by general public.
Funds released under PMKSY during 2016-17 are as under:
|Srl No||Item||Funds Released – in crs|
|4||State Share from LTIF||3334|
|Total||Rs. 10010 cr|
|State budget||Rs 7870 cr|
|Projects in pipeline||Rs. 1200 cr|
|Total funds leveraged by LTIF for PMKSY||Rs 19080 cr|
Under ‘HAR KHET KO PANI’ and ‘MORE CROP PER DROP’ scheme 22 projects of Maharashtra, 6 projects of Odisha, 17 projects (including phases) of Madhya Pradesh (45 in all) have been put on fast track and likely to be completed in advance of the scheduled time. Potential Utilization through the prioritized projects is expected to be more than 14 Lakh Ha during 2016-17. Innovative means such as installation of underground pressure pipelines to resolve issues of land acquisition has been adopted. Focus is on CADWM – HKKP, from only 39 projects under CADWM initially – currently 75 projects are under various stages of Command Area Development – HKKP.
Polavaram Multi-purpose Project (AP/Telangana) has been put on a fast track and is likely to irrigate 2.9 Lakh ha. And generate 960 MW of power. Since May 2014, an amount of Rs. 3349.70 Crores has been released to the State Government of Andhra Pradesh for early completion of Polavaram Irrigation Project, a multi-purpose project on the river Godavari.
RAISING OF SARDAR SAROVAR DAM (SSD): With lowering of gates of SSD, the live storage capacity would increase from 1565 to 5740 MCM i.e. by 4175 MCM (267%). The clean (hydro-power generation) would increase by present 1300 MW to 1450 MW with increase in annual generation by about 1100 Million Units (i.e. about Rs.400/- crore per annum). In addition, this additional storage would irrigate about 8 lakh hectares.
KEN BETWA LINK PROJECT (KBLP) AND OTHER NEW PROJECTS: The Government has accorded high priority to Inter Linking River projects due to which Ken Betwa is likely to be rolled out soon. All mandatory clearances and statutory clearances have been obtained from designated authorities. Draft Cabinet Note for implementation of project has been circulated for inter-ministerial consultations and copies have also been shared with States of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for obtaining their Views. The KBLP is the first ILR project to be taken up for implementation, which will provide irrigation and drinking water supply in the drought prone and backward Bundelkhand region and transfer surplus water of Ken basin to water deficit Betwa basin, besides power generation. A 77m high Daudhan Dam with gross storage capacity of 2953 million cubic meters (MCM) and reservoir submergence area of 9000 hectares(ha) along with a 221 Km long main canal is proposed. KBLP phase-I shall provide irrigation to an area of 6,35,661 ha annually (3,69,881 ha in MP and 2,65,780 ha in UP) in the culturable command area (CCA) of 5,15,215 ha (2,87,842 ha in MP and 2,22,373 ha in UP) in the Chhattarpur, Tikamgarh and Panna districts of Madhya Pradesh and Mahoba, Banda and Jhansi district s of Uttar Pradesh. The project will provide 49 MCM of water for enroute drinking water supply to population of 13.42 lakh of UP & MP. The project will also generate 78 MW of power. The project when completed will add about 10% to the present irrigation potential of Madhya Pradesh as additional irrigation. Par-Tapi-Narmada and Daman-Ganga-Pinjal are other new ILR projects in the pipeline.
PANCHESWAR PROJECT: As a result of Prime Minister’s initiative, Pancheshwar Development Authority (PDA) has been set up jointly by India and Nepal in 2014 for execution, operation and maintenance of the Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project on river Sharda. The project envisages a storage of the order of 6 BCM; will generate 5050 MW power, irrigate 4.3 lakh ha out of which 2.6 lakh ha is in India, at a total cost of Rs. 33108 crore. The project will generate an annual benefit of Rs.4,592crores which includes Rs. 3665 crores as power benefit, Rs. 837 crore as irrigation benefit and Rs. 90 crore as flood benefit. The Pancheshwar storage dam would play a significant role in mitigating floods. The disaster due to floods year after year and associated costs could be avoided to Nation’s advantage. The project will promote eco-tourism as part of the environmental management plan. Most of the inputs, labour etc. would come from India and therefore the project will benefit the Indian economy.
NORTH KOEL PROJECT: A 67.86 m high and 343 m long concrete dam to store 116 MCM water has been planned. Project includes a 819.6m long barrage at Mohammadganj, 96 km downstream of the dam, two canals originating from left and right banks of Mohammadganj Barrage with distributaries system for irrigation.44.0 MCM drinking and industrial water is expected from this project.
NORTH EASTERN STATES: Focus has also been given towards development of North-Eastern States. Some of the significant developments are as under:
- Brahmputra board is being restructured.
- 4 projects with a balance CA of 617 crores taken up under PMKSY to generate an Irrigation Potential of 1.62 lakh ha.
- So far, Rs.184 crore has been spent on protection of Majuli, largest habitated river island in the world on river Brahmputra, from floods and erosion. Now, the Government of India has sanctioned a project amounting to Rs.237 crores for major works for protection of Majuli.
National Hydrology Project is the path breaking Rs 3640 Crores project approved by the Government in April, 2016 through which Country’s water resources operation and planning will be modernized through reliable, accurate and irrefutable automated data collection and dissemination. Rs. 47.83 Crore was released to the States under NHP for the year 2016 -17. Further, Rs 124.42 crore is in the process of release to the States under NHP for the year 2017-18. This is a new initiative by present Government.
Inter-State Water Dispute Tribunal: The Cabinet Note for amendment to existing Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 (amended lastly in 2002), has been approved by the Cabinet on 07.12.2016 for constitution of a stand-alone Tribunal with common establishment. The Inter-State River Water Dispute Amendment Bill has been introduced in the Parliament on 14.03.2017.
The Dam Safety Bill has been prepared to provide for robust institutional and legal framework to ensure safety of dams and prevent dam related disasters. This Bill was essential because there are over 5200 dams in India and many of them are over 50 years old. The Bill provides for surveillance, inspect ion, operation and maintenance of dams in the country. Most of the States have supported t his proposal. The Bill has been vetted by the Ministry of Law & Justice and is shortly being brought up before the Union Cabinet for its approval.
MoU on Water Resource Management and Development has been signed with European Union, Israel, Hungary and Tanzania during July 2016 to November 2016.
NATIONAL MISSION FOR CLEAN GANGA
- a) Namami Gange programme is an integrated conservation mission approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2015 with a budget outlay of Rs. 20000 Crores for five years. Namami Gange programme made 100 percent centrally funded programme with provision for 15 years operation and maintenance.
- b) Union Cabinet in January 2016 approved Hybrid Annuity based Public Private partnership (PPP) model for construction of sewage infrastructure with an aim to ensure long term satisfactory performance of sewage infrastructure.
- c) Union Cabinet in January 2016 approved “The River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016” which empowers NMCG to discharge its functions in an independent and accountable manner and also empowers NMCG with certain regulatory powers as an authority under EP Act.
- d) Authority Order also provides for constitution of State Ganga Committees and District Ganga Committees as authorities under EP Act.
- e) Details/status of Municipal Sewage Management in Towns along Ganga Main Stream are as appended below:
|Sr. No.||State||Total Sewerage Generation (MLD)||Total Existing STP Capacity (MLD)||Treatment Capacity Gap (MLD)||Projects under Implementation
|43 Town||20 Town||7 Town||8 Town||20 Town|
- f) Progress of Sewage treatment works along Ganga stream is as under:
- g) Status on Industrial pollution control & Regulation are as under:
- h) In addition, 11.04 lac Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs) have been constructed in villages located on Ganga and 4076 villages have been declared open defecation free.
- j) There has been a continuous improvement in the quality of water in the tributaries of river Ganga before confluence. It has been observed that Dissolved Oxygen level and BoD level of water has increased and decreased respectively in rivers Dahela, Bahela, Kosi and Ramganga.
- k) A new initiative has been taken by the present government for rural sanitation in Ganga Gram villages and a total of Rs 578 Cr has been released to Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation towards Swachh Bharat (Rural).
- l) River Surface cleaning work starting at 11 important locations by use of trash skimmers.
- m) Real time effluent monitoring Station of Gross Polluting has started.
- n) In addition to Manual Water Quality Monitoring at 110 locations, Real Time Water Quality Monitoring of Ganga started at 44 locations.
- o) Under biodiversity programme, two rescue and rehabilitation centers for turtles have been set up at Narora and Sarnath and for the first time comprehensive baseline survey of aquatic animals including Gangatic dolphins in the entire stretch of River Ganga is in progress.
- p) MoUs have been signed with 10 Central Ministries with a view to ensure adequate flow in the River. Steps have been taken to fix e-flow and improve water use efficiency in various consuming sectors.
- q) Afforestation planned along Ganga: This includes plantation in Natural, Agricultural & Urban landscape, Conservation interventions i.e. wetlands, Soil & water management and Research, Awareness & Capacity building etc. The status of the work is as under:
FY 2016-17: Advance soil work – 3,486 ha, plantation -1,36,759 no.;
FY 2017-18: 8,046 ha. Planned; Medicinal plants – in 7 districts of Uttarakhand.
- r) Information, Education and Communication Activities for Public Awareness, Communication and Public Outreach towards Ganga Mission:
- Ganga Swachta Pakhwada-16-31stMarch 2017 observed at 17 major locations.
- Activities: Pad Yatras, Shram Daan , Cultural Programmes, Painting Competitions for children,, Talk Shows/Dialogues , Photo Exhibitions etc.
- Ganga Swachta Sankalp Divas : Observed on 2ndMay 2017
- Ganga Vichar Manch- A Volunteer group created by NMCG is actively involved in awareness activities.
- MoU with Rotary for awareness in Schools along Ganga.
- Newspaper, TV/Radio advertisements, publication of special featured articles and advertorials on Namami Gange Programme.
(a) Indiscriminate GW development in some parts has led to decline of in GW levels, drying up of Shallow Wells, reduction in sustainability of wells, increased energy consumption, deterioration in GW quality, sea water ingress in coastal areas, decrease in base flow in many small river, increase of CO2 emission footprints due to electric & diesel pump sets etc.
- b) CGWB has embarked in to an innovative programme of Aquifer mapping in 8.89 lakh sq. km during 2012-2017, out of total mappable area of ~ 23 lakh sq.km of the country. The broad objectives include establishing the lateral and vertical extent of aquifer, assessment of development potential in terms of quantification of aquifer wise resources and their quality, preparation of Aquifer maps and management plans for implementation under IWRM framework. Focus is towards priority water stressed areas in eight states viz. Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Bundelkhand. The aquifer maps and management plans for an area of about 5.90 lakh sqkm has already been completed. The maps and management plans are reviewed in three tier arrangement before finally accepted. It is envisaged to cover 4.60 lakh sq km during 2017-18 (out of 13.74 lakh sq km area targeted for 2017-20). The aquifer maps & Management plans are shared with the state government.
- c) Regulation, Development and Management of Ground Water Resources: Model Bill -2005 circulated to states for regulation of Ground water, so far 15 States/UTs enacted legislation based on Model Bill.Roof top rain water harvesting made mandatory by 30 States/UTs through inclusion in Building bye laws /Rules/Regulations for urban areas. Revised Model Bill- 2017, state level workshop held for wider consultation and a presentation was made by Dr Mihir Shah to NITI Aayog in May, 2017.The Model bill 2017 is under consideration of NITI Aayog.